Raffles City - A ‘City within a City’, is one of the world’s largest mixed-use developments under a single ownership, comprising:
Raffles City - A City within a City - is one of the world's outstanding multi-purpose commercial complexes. A vast, towering development comprising two world class hotels, an international convention centre, an office tower and a luxury shopping centre.
Long planned as a key development of the new Singapore, to set standards of excellence and be a symbol of Singapore's achievements, it was given a location at the historic heart of the city state in the midst of the currently planned Civic District. It is therefore befitting that this mega-project be billed as "A City within a City".
This project was sponsored by the Development Bank of Singapore (DBS) a power house of the nation's commercial and industrial development. The DBS commissioned I M Pei one of the world's great architects, to meet the challenge of the project and supported him with an outstanding team of engineers and specialists.
CMP Consultants Pte Ltd was associated with the project from the very earliest stages right through to completion, working closely with Cosentini Associates of New York as the Mechanical and Electrical Consultants. CMP Consultants was also separately retained as Civil Engineering Consultant for the massive basement excavation, reconstruction of Stamford Canal and all the other civil works involved in the development.
Raffles City is built on a prime site bounded by four major roads covering an area of 7.6 acres (3 hectares) with a direct connection to the main interchange station of the Singapore MRT. The total built-up area is in excess of 4 million square feet (390,000 square metres). The building complex comprises 3 basement floors of almost full site area, a 7-storey podium and four high rise towers.
The complex has several major components, all carefully designed to complement each other, including :
At 72 storeys, this opened as the tallest hotel in the world. With 1257 rooms and 80 suites it is a major building in its own right.
Comprising two interconnected 28 storey twin-towers, it contains 796 rooms and 47 suites of even higher standard than its sister hotel.
This covers the whole of the 4th storey and extending into part of the 5th storey, providing two ballrooms and 23 function/meeting rooms. The ballrooms are provided with full convention audio visual facilities. The main ballroom has a floor area of 24,000 square feet capable of accommodating over 5000 (and up to 6,500 in theatre arrangements).
A 42 storey office complex with 35 rentable floors having a total net rentable area of 370,000 square feet (35,000 square metres).
A Shopping Centre occupying some 200,000 square feet (19,000 square metres) of the lower three floors of the podium provides a full range of shopping facilities, F&B outlets and other related services.
The shopping centre is arranged round a spectacular concourse comprising three atria. Installed over the main atrium are two computer operated animated light boards the first of its kind to be installed in Singapore.
A complete range of hotel facilities are provided which includes a large size swimming pool/hyropool, 6 tennis courts, 4 squash courts, health club and fitness centre, business centre and a total of 17 F&B outlets which includes a roof top restaurant and bar (Compass Rose) on the 68th and 69th storeys of the Westin Stamford.
A large main preparation kitchen located in basement 1 provides the necessary backups to the 17 F&B outlets and the convention centre.
Laundry service is provided in house by a commercial size laundry located on the 6th storey of the podium.
Included in the development is a basement carpark for 1200 cars.
Cosentini Associates of New York is one of the world's foremost consultants for M&E services in large building complexes and with its specialist expertise in this area and knowledge of state-of-the-art technology, it was a natural choice to lead the M&E design for Raffles City. CMP Consultants with its own long established record in the design and supervision of M&E systems in large hotels and shopping complexes, was ideally placed to work with Cosentini Associates in design and to be responsible for getting these designs implemented in the project.
In addition to working with Cosentini Associates on the primary M&E services, CMP was directly responsible for the design and supervision of the extension of these services into the VIP Suites, restaurants and the major tenancy areas.
CMP Consultants was separately engaged as the Consultant for the design and supervision of all the civil engineering works in the project and to assist in the design and supervision of the following specialized systems.
Upon its final completion at the end of 1987 the total project cost was in excess of S$1 billion the largest amount to be spent in a single building project at the time.
The engineering features of the project match the overall concept in scale and sophistication. Features associated with the CMP input include:
This required a 40 feet (12 metre) deep excavation over the whole site, right out to the boundaries of the main roads on all sides (over 370,000 cubic metres of earth was excavated). It also required the historic Stamford Canal to be reconstructed partially suspended over the excavation.
The carrying out of this massive excavation required the installation of a temporary retaining system comprising sheet piles and guniting in combination with H piles and ground anchors.
With more than 100,000 cubic metres of concrete in all, the sub structure includes many outstanding engineering features, the most notable being the immense foundation for the Westin Stamford, a single pour of 11,000 cubic metres that set a world record.
The whole of the substructure is designed to bear directly on the ground without any piles. Economies in construction of the basement structures were achieved by the provision of a sub soil drainage system and the exclusion of ground water.
A comprehensive soil instrumentation system was installed over the whole site to continuously monitor the soil condition and ground movement..
A construction enterprise of great complexity, it proceeded simultaneously on all fronts, employing up to 8 tower cranes at the peak of construction.
When topped out, the Westin Stamford tower was the second tallest concrete building in the world. Construction of the towers peaked at a rate better than one floor every six days.
These installations include over 10,000 TR of cooling provided by 6 chiller-sets (each requiring 1,275 kW input power), supported by 6 chilled-water pumps, 6 condenser water pumps and 10 cooling tower cells.
In addition there are 2 heat pumps rated at 11.5 million BTU/hr (3,369 kWT) each and other energy saving equipment. The installed electrical load of this central plant is over 12,000 kW.
The various building areas are served by 2,450 fan coil units, 230 air handling units and 250 ventilation fans.
The entire installations are programmed, controlled and monitored by a sophisticated building automation system.
The complex has a 32 MW, 22 kV power supply for a declared demand of 30 MW. Dry-type transformers are located in the basement and in the towers. Emergency power is supplied by 6 diesel alternators at strategic locations.
In all, Raffles City has 72 lifts and 24 escalators.
To minimise usage of potable water, a separate piping system is provided for toilet flushing, etc. allowing use of non-portable water for these uses. Rainwater is collected for cooling tower use.
In addition to the comprehensive automation of airconditioning operation, the building automation provisions allow optimization of energy use and the control of maximum electrical demand.
The sheer size of Raffles City places special demands on the provision of fire protection. While use has been made of all of the latest techniques for providing fire protection, complete sprinkler protection of the whole complex provides the ultimate guarantee of safety.